Edessa, Mesopotamia, now Şanlıurfa, Turkey
County of Edessa, a crusader state
Osroene, an ancient kingdom and province of the Roman Empire .
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For the city of Mesopotamia, see Edessa, Mesopotamia.
40°48′N 22°3′E / 40.8°N 22.05°E / 40.8; 22.05Coordinates: 40°48′N 22°3′E / 40.8°N 22.05°E / 40.8; 22.05
320 m (1,050 ft)
Population statistics (as of 2001)
38.9 km² (15 sq mi)
469 /km² (1,215 /sq mi)
321.2 km² (124 sq mi)
80 /km² (207 /sq mi)
Edessa (Greek: Έδεσσα, Édessa, IPA: [ˈe̞ðe̞sa]) is the capital of the Pella Prefecture of Macedonia, Greece. Administratively, it belongs to the Central Macedonia periphery and is also the capital of the defunct province of the same name.
With a long history stretching back to antiquity, Edessa is home to the Marketing and Administration Departments of the University of Macedonia.
5 Notable people
6 See also
7 Notes and references
8 External links
The name "Edessa" has been connected to Phrygian "bedu" (water). Similarly, it was ascribed an Illyrian origin by Ulrich Wilcken, in his biography of Alexander the Great (noted by Walter Bauer 1934; 1971; ch. 1), the "town of the waters", due to its copious water resources and its tourist attraction of the waterfalls, located in the actual town center. These views also gain some support if the later Slavic-derived name Βοδενά (Vodena - from "voda", water) is considered. The Ancient Greek name "Edessa" (Ἔδεσσα) was commemorated by Seleucus I Nicator in refounding an ancient city in northern Mesopotamia: see Edessa, Mesopotamia. The modern Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavic name of the city is "Voden/Воден" (derived from voda/вода, water). In Turkish, the city can be known as either "Edessa" , "Vodine" or especially "Vodina", and in Aromanian the city can be known as either "Edessa" , "Vudena" or "Vodina".
Ancient ruins in Edessa
Archaeological remains have been discovered on the site of ancient Edessa, just below the modern city. The walls and the agora have been unearthed so far. A colonnade with inscription in Greek dates from Roman times. The city achieved certain prominence in the first centuries AD, being located on the Via Egnatia. From 27 BC to 249 AD it had its own mint. St. Vassa and her three children were put to death in the 3rd Century AD.
Very little is known about the fate of the city after 500 AD. Its bishop Issidoros participated in the Ecumenical Council of 692. After the Slavic settlements of the 6th-8th century, the name of "Edessa" disappears and what remains of the city (a fortress in the acropolis of the ancient city) is renamed "Vodena". It is known as such to the 11th century Byzantine historian John Skylitzes. It is mentioned as both Edessa and Vodena by emperor-historian John VI Kantakouzenos who laid siege to the city in the 1340s. Conquered by the Serbs of Stephen Dusan at that time, it fell to the Ottomans along with the rest of Macedonia around 1390.
From the 1860s onwards, the town was a flashpoint for clashes between Greeks and Bulgarians.
After more than 500 years of Ottoman rule, Edessa was liberated by the Greek Army on 18 October 1912. At that time, it was already well on its way to becoming a major industrial centre in Macedonia. Four large textile factories were in operation by 1914, employing the abundant waterfalls as a source of energy. In addition, a large segment of the population specialised in silk production, allowing Edessa to enjoy a high standard of living in the interwar period (1922-1940). The region of Edessa was also populated to some extent by Aromanians, but large numbers of Greek refugees from Asia Minor were settled in the area in 1923, after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey.
The town suffered during the last days of German occupation in 1944. As a retaliation for the shooting of one soldier by resistance fighters, the Nazis put Edessa to fire. Half of the city, including the Cathedral and the First Primary School, were destroyed and thousands of people were left homeless.
For most of the Greek Civil War Edessa was under communist control. The Slavic-Macedonian National Liberation Front, later simply the National Liberation Front or NOF was heavily established in the area. By 1946, eleven Slav Macedonian partisan units were operating in the Edessa area. The NOF had a regional committee based in Edessa, but the city continued to be ruled by the right-wing government of Athens. When the NOF merged with the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE), many Slav Macedonians in the region enlisted as volunteers in the DSE. After the end of war in 1949, many pro-communists, including Greek and Slav Macedonians, were evacuated or fled to Yugoslavia and the Eastern Bloc. 
In the postwar period Edessa gradually lost its competitive advantage in industry and declined economically and in population. At the beginning of the 21st century, it is a city based on services (mostly linked to its function as capital of the Pella Prefecture) and tourism.
Location of Edessa in its municipality
 Notable people
Vangel Ajanovski - Oče (1909 - 1996) - secretary of SNOF
Marietta Chrousala (1983 - ) - fashion model and television presenter
 See also
List of communities of Pella
 Notes and references
F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine romaine = The Cities of Roman Macedonia, BCH Suppl. 16, 1988, 127-131.
Walter Bauer, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, 1934, (in English 1971) (On-line text)
^ PDF "(875 KB) 2001 Census" (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece (ΕΣΥΕ). www.statistics.gr. http://www.statistics.gr/gr_tables/S1101_SAP_1_TB_DC_01_03_Y.pdf PDF. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
^ (Greek) "Basic Characteristics". Ministry of the Interior. www.ypes.gr. http://www.ypes.gr/topiki.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
^ Hammond N.G.L., A history of Macedonia, Historical geography and prehistory, Vol. 1, Oxford 1979
^ Vacalopulos, Konstandinos A. Modern history of Macedonia, Thessaloniki 1988, p. 52, 57, 64
^ Simpson, Neil (1994). Macedonia Its Disputed History. Victoria: Aristoc Press, 105,106 & 94. ISBN 0646204629.
^ "Les Archives de la Macedonine, Fond: Aegean Macedonia in NLW" - (Field report of Mihail Keramidzhiev to the Main Command of NOF), 8 July 1945
^ Η Τραγική αναμέτρηση, 1945-1949 – Ο μύθος και η αλήθεια. Ζαούσης Αλέξανδρος" (ISBN 9607213432).
^ Simpson, Neil (1994). Macedonia Its Disputed History. Victoria: Aristoc Press, 101,102 & 91. ISBN 0646204629.
^ Edessa - 3000 years history
 External links
Edessa official site
Pella Prefecture official site, containing useful information about Edessa
Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Old Cathedral of Edessa
Coordinates: 40°47′55″N 22°2′44″E / 40.79861°N 22.04556°E / 40.79861; 22.04556
v • d • eMunicipalities of the Pella Prefecture
Alexandros o Megas • Aridaia • Edessa • Exaplatanos • Giannitsa • Krya Vrysi • Kyrros • Meniida • Pella • Skydra • Vegoritida
v • d • e Prefectural Capitals of Greece
Agios Nikolaos • Alexandroupoli • Amfissa • Argostoli • Arta • Athens • Chalcis • Chania • Chios • Corfu • Corinth • Drama • Edessa • Eleusina • Ermoupoli • Florina • Grevena • Heraklion • Igoumenitsa • Ioannina • Kalamata • Karditsa • Karpenisi • Kastoria • Katerini • Kavala • Kilkis • Komotini • Kozani • Lamia • Larissa • Lefkada • Livadeia • Messolonghi • Mytilene • Nafplion • Pallini • Patras • Piraeus • Polygyros • Preveza • Pyrgos • Rethymno • Rhodes • Serres • Sparta • Thessaloniki • Trikala • Tripoli • Vathy • Veria • Volos • Xanthi • Zakynthos
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edessa,_Greece"
Categories: Cities and towns in Greece Greek prefectural capitals Pella
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Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Git ve: kullan, ara
→ Başlığın diğer anlamları için Voden (anlam ayrım) sayfasına bakınız.
40°48′ K 22°3′ D
Bu madde Edessa adlı Yunanistanın kenti hakkındadır. Edessa Kontluğu için Urfa Kontluğu maddesine ve kontluğun başkenti Edessa için Şanlıurfa maddesine bakabilirsiniz.
Vodina (Edessa, Yunanca: Έδεσσα / Édessa IPA: [ˈe̞ðe̞sa], Slav dilleri: Voden ya da Vodin), Yunanistan'ın Makedonya bölgesinde bir şehirdir.
1923 Türkiye-Yunanistan Nüfus Mübadelesi öncesinde Türkler ve Makedonya Slavları Vodina nüfusunun çoğunluğunu oluşturmaktaydılar. Mübadeleden sonra Türkler tarafından Vodina olarak bilinen şehrin ismi Yunanca dilinde Edesa olarak kabul edildi. karacaova bölgesi Kaymakçalan dağları ile vodina arasında kalan bölgeye verilen ad mübadele öncesi gustulüp -(kostandia) ve fuştan -gazi evrenos bey ile giden asker ailelerden çoğunluğunu oluşturmaktaydı. Vodina ve Karacaovadan 1924 mübadelesinde 10.000 müslüman türk istanbul-izmir-bursa-edirne-bilecik-çanakkaleye yerleşmiştir.
vodina - karacaova köyleri
gustulüp - kostantia
fuştan - fuostani
sputka - aridea
kuzuşan - floita
slatina - chrıysa
pojar - loutraki
kırlat - milia
zübeyde hanım ( 1857 )- atatürkün annesi
ahmet kadiri - osmanlı şairi- dogum tarihi bilinmiyor
hakkı yeten -( baba hakkı- 1910 ) beşiktaşlı futbolcu
muharrem hürrem erman -( 1913 ) erman filimcilik türk sinaması
nüfus mübadelesinde din kriterleri temel alındığından yunanistan, müslüman türk mübadilleri günlük yaşamlarında türkçe dışında makedonca, rumca, ulahça, pomakça gibi farklı dilleride konuşurlardı
karacaova (karacaabat) ve kastorya müslüman türk halkı yerel dil olan makedonca konuşmakta bugünkü makedoncadan farklı
notyalılar romanya lehçesi konuşmakta
dramanın kuzeyinden gelenler pomakça konuşmakta bulgarcadan farklı
garebena bölgesinde olanlar patriyotça konuşmakta
giritten gelenler kırıkita konuşmakta rumcadan farklı
Yunanistan'daki bir yerleşim yeri hakkındaki bu taslağı geliştirerek Vikipedi'ye katkıda bulunabilirsiniz.
"http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodina" adresinden alındı.
Sayfa kategorileri: Yunanistan yerleşim yerleri taslakları Yunanistan'daki şehirler Makedonya (Yunanistan)
Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi
Git ve: kullan, ara
Urfa KontluğuComté d'Édesse
1098 – 1149
Diğer Haçlı Devletlerinin yanında Urfa Kontluğu
Resmi dili Fransızca, Ermenice
- 1098–1100 Kudüs'lü I. Baldwin
- 1285-1291 Urfa'lı III. Joscelin
- Kuruluş tarihi
- Birinci Haçlı seferi
- İkinci Haçlı seferi
- Yıkılış tarihi
Bu madde Edessa Kontluğu hakkındadır. Kontluğun başkenti Edessa için Şanlıurfa maddesine ve aynı adı taşıyan Yunanistanın kenti için Vodina maddesine bakabilirsiniz.
Urfa Kontluğu 12. yüzyılda Urfa kentinde Haçlılar tarafından kurulmuş bir devlettir.
Urfa Haçlı Kontluğu Tarihi (1098-1118), I, Işın Demirkent, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 1990, ISBN 975-16-0221-1.
Urfa Haçlı Kontluğu Tarihi (1118-1146), II, Işın Demirkent, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 1994, ISBN 975-16-0664-0.
Tarih ile ilgili bu madde bir taslaktır. İçeriğini geliştirerek Vikipedi'ye katkıda bulunabilirsiniz.
"http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urfa_Kontlu%C4%9Fu" adresinden alındı.
Sayfa kategorileri: Tarih taslakları Haçlı devletleri Şanlıurfa tarihi
County of Edessa
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County of Edessa
1098 – 1149
The County of Edessa in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135.
Latin, Old French, Italian (also Arabic and Greek)
Roman Catholicism, Greek Orthodoxy, Syrian Orthodoxy, Islam, Judaism
High Middle Ages
- First Crusade
- Conquered by Nur ad-Din, and the rest sold to Manuel I Komnenos
The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity: Edessa.
The County of Edessa was different from the other Crusader states in that it was landlocked; it was remote from the other states and was not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch. Half of the county, including its capital, was located east of the Euphrates, far to the east of the others, rendering it particularly vulnerable. The part west of the Euphrates was controlled from the stronghold of Turbessel.
2 Conflicts with Muslim neighbours
3 Fall of the county
4 Population and demographics
5 Vassals of Edessa
5.1 Lordship of Turbessel
6 Counts of Edessa, 1098–1149
Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa in February 1098. He is shown being welcomed by the Armenian clergy, who welcomed the end of tutelage to Constantinople.
In 1098, Baldwin of Boulogne left the main Crusading army, which was travelling south towards Antioch and Jerusalem, and went first south into Cilicia, then east to Edessa. There, he convinced its lord, Thoros, to adopt him as a son and heir. Thoros was a Christian of Greek Orthodox, largely disliked by his Armenian Orthodox subjects; in March 1098 he was assassinated or abdicated (here historians conflict), although it is unknown if Baldwin had any part in whichever of the two options did happen. Nonetheless, Baldwin succeeded Thoros as ruler, taking the title of Count (having been Count of Verdun as a vassal of his brother in Europe).
In 1100, Baldwin became King of Jerusalem when his brother Godfrey of Bouillon died. The County of Edessa passed to his cousin Baldwin of Bourcq. He was joined by Joscelin of Courtenay, who became lord of the fortress of Turbessel on the Euphrates, an important outpost against the Seljuk Turks.
The Frankish lords formed a good rapport with their Armenian subjects, and there were frequent intermarriages; the first three counts all married Armenians. Count Baldwin's wife had died in Maraş in 1097, and after he succeeded to Edessa he married Arda, a granddaughter of the Armenian Roupenid chief Constantine. Baldwin of Bourcq married Morphia, a daughter of Gabriel of Melitene, and Joscelin of Courtenay married a daughter of Constantine.
 Conflicts with Muslim neighbours
Baldwin of Boulogne receiving the hommage of the Armenians in Edessa.
Baldwin II quickly became involved in the affairs of northern Syria and Asia Minor. He helped secure the ransom of Bohemond I of Antioch from the Danishmends in 1103, and, with Antioch, attacked the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia in 1104. Later in 1104, Edessa was attacked by Mosul, and both Baldwin and Joscelin were taken prisoner when they were defeated at the Battle of Harran. Bohemond's cousin Tancred became regent in Edessa (although Richard of Salerno actually governed the territory), until Baldwin and Joscelin were ransomed in 1108. However, Baldwin had to fight to regain control of the city; Tancred was eventually defeated, though Baldwin had to ally with some of the local Muslim rulers.
In 1110, all lands east of the Euphrates were lost to Mawdud of Mosul; however, like the other attacks, this one was not followed by an assault on Edessa itself, as the Muslim rulers were more concerned with consolidating their own power.
Baldwin II became King of Jerusalem (also as Baldwin II) when Baldwin I died in 1118. Although Eustace of Boulogne had a better claim as the late Baldwin's brother, he was in France and did not want the title. Edessa was given to Joscelin in 1119. Joscelin was taken prisoner once again in 1122; when Baldwin came to rescue him, he too was captured, and Jerusalem was left without its king. However, Joscelin escaped in 1123, and obtained Baldwin's release the next year.
 Fall of the county
Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131 and was succeeded by his son Joscelin II. By this time, however, Zengi had united Aleppo and Mosul and began to threaten Edessa; meanwhile, Joscelin II paid little attention to the security of his county, and argued with the counts of Tripoli who then refused to come to his aid. Zengi besieged the city in 1144, capturing it on December 24 of that year. Joscelin continued to rule his lands west of the Euphrates, and he also managed to take advantage of the death of Zengi in September 1146 to regain and hold briefly his old capital. The city was again lost in November, and Joscelin barely escaped. In 1150 he was captured by Zengi's son Nur ad-Din, and was kept a prisoner in Aleppo until he died in 1159. His wife sold Turbessel and what was left of the County to the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, but these lands were conquered by Nur ad-Din and the Sultan of Rum within the year. Edessa was the first Crusader state to be created, and also the first to be lost.
 Population and demographics
Edessa was one of the largest of the Crusader states in terms of territory. However, it was one of the smallest by population. Edessa itself had about 10 000 inhabitants, but the rest of the county consisted mostly of fortresses. The county's territory extended from Antioch in the west to across the Euphrates in the east, at least at its greatest extent; it also often occupied land as far north as Armenia proper. To the south and east were the powerful Muslim cities of Aleppo and Mosul, and the Jazira (northern Iraq). The inhabitants were mostly Assyrian, Jacobite, and Armenian Orthodox Christians, with some Greek Orthodox and Muslims. Although the numbers of Latins always remained small, there was a Roman Catholic Patriarch, and the fall of the city was the catalyst for the Second Crusade in 1146.
 Vassals of Edessa
 Lordship of Turbessel
Turbessel was firstly the lordship of Joscelin I when he was not yet the Count of Edessa. It controlled the area west of the Euphrates, and held the border against Antioch. It then was a special holding of Courtenay counts of Edessa, and again became their seat after the loss of the city of Edessa. It was sold with the remaining parts of the County to the Byzantines just before it was conquered by Muslims. After the sale, the wife and family of Joscelin II moved with the proceeds to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, near Acre.
 Counts of Edessa, 1098–1149
Baldwin I 1098–1100
Baldwin II 1100–1118
Tancred, Prince of Galilee regent (with Richard of Salerno as governor, 1104–1108)
Joscelin I 1118–1131
Joscelin II 1131–1149 (d.1159)
Joscelin III, titular Count from 1159
^ "Les Croisades, Origines et consequences", Claude Lebedel, p.50
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_of_Edessa"
Categories: Former monarchies 1098 establishments 1149 disestablishments Counts of Edessa County of Edessa 1st house of Courtenay
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For the Greek city in Macedonia, see Edessa, Greece.
The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Şanlı Urfa.
Shows the location of Edessa within modern Turkey.
Edessa (Greek: Eδεσσα) is the historical name of a Syriac town in northern Mesopotamia, refounded on an ancient site by Seleucus I Nicator. For the modern history of the city, see Şanlıurfa.
1 The name
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
 The name
The name under which Edessa figures in cuneiform inscriptions is unknown. In early Greek texts, the city is called Ορρα or Ορροα, transliterated Orrha or Orrhoa respectively, as the capital of the Kingdom of Osroe, named after its legendary founder Osroe, the Armenian form for Chosroes. The later native name was Edessa, which became in Syriac ܐܘܪܗܝ, transliterated Orhāy or Ourhoï, in Armenian it is Ուռհա , transliterated Urha or Ourha, in Arabic it is الرُّهَا, transliterated as Er Roha or Ar-Ruha, commonly Orfa, Turkish Urfa, Ourfa, Sanli Urfa, or Şanlıurfa ("Glorious Urfa"), its present name. Due to similarity of names, folk mythology in Islam connects Edessa with Ur as the abode of Abraham. Seleucus I Nicator, when he refounded the town as a military colony in 303 BC, mixing Greeks with its eastern population, called it Edessa, in memory of Edessa the ancient capital of Macedon. The name is also recorded as Callirrhoe, and under Antiochus IV Epiphanes the town was called Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Καλλιρρόης) by colonists from Syrian Antioch (modern Antakya, Turkey) who had settled there. During Byzantine rule it was named Justinopolis. Its Kurdish name is Riha.
In the second half of the second century BC, as the Seleucid monarchy disintegrated in the wars with Parthia (145 –129), Edessa became the capital of the Abgar dynasty, who founded the Kingdom of Osroene (also known in history as Kingdom of Edessa). This kingdom was established by Nabataean or Arab tribes from North Arabia, and lasted nearly four centuries (c.132 BC to 214), under twenty-eight rulers, who sometimes called themselves "king" on their coinage. Edessa was at first more or less under the protectorate of the Parthians, then of Tigranes of Armenia, then from the time of Pompey under the Romans. Following its capture and sack by Trajan, the Romans even occupied Edessa from 116 to 118, although its sympathies towards the Parthians led to Lucius Verus pillaging the city later in the second century. From 212 to 214 the kingdom was a Roman province. Caracalla was assassinated in Edessa in 217.
The literary language of the tribes which had founded this kingdom, was Aramaic, whence came the Syriac. Traces of Hellenistic culture were soon overwhelmed in Edessa, whose dynasty employs Syriac legends on their coinage, with the exception of the Syriac client king Abgar IX (179-214), and there is a corresponding lack of Greek public inscriptions.
Rebuilt by Emperor Justin, and called after him Justinopolis (Evagrius, Hist. Eccl., IV, viii), Edessa was taken in 609 by the Sassanid Persia, soon retaken by Heraclius, but lost to the Muslim army under Rashidun Caliphate during the Islamic conquest of Levant in 638 A.D. The Byzantines often tried to retake Edessa, especially under Romanus Lacapenus, who obtained from the inhabitants the "Holy Mandylion", or ancient portrait of Christ, and solemnly transferred it to Constantinople, August 16, 944. This was the final great achievement of Romanus' reign. For an account of this venerable and famous image, which was certainly at Edessa in 544, and of which there is an ancient copy in the Vatican Library, brought to the West by the Venetians in 1207, see Weisliebersdorf, Christus und Apostelbilder (Freiburg, 1902), and Ernst von Dobschütz, Christusbilder (Leipzig, 1899).
In 1031 Edessa was given up to the Byzantines under George Maniakes by its Arab governor. It was retaken by the Arabs, and then successively held by the Greeks, the Armenians, the Seljuk Turks (1087), the Crusaders (1099), who established there the County of Edessa and kept the city until 1144, when it was again captured by the Turk Zengi, and most of its inhabitants were slaughtered together with the Latin archbishop (see Siege of Edessa). These events are known to us chiefly through the Armenian historian Matthew, who had been born at Edessa. Since the twelfth century, the city has successively belonged to the Sultans of Aleppo, the Mongols, the Mameluks, and from 1517 to 1918 to the Ottoman Empire.
The precise date of the introduction of Christianity into Edessa is not known. However, there is no doubt that even before 190 A.D. Christianity had spread vigorously within Edessa and its surroundings and that (shortly after 201 or even earlier?) the royal house joined the church. According to a legend first reported by Eusebius in the 4th century, King Abgar V Ukāmā was converted by Addai, who was one of the seventy-two disciples, sent to him by "Judas, who is also called Thomas".. Yet various sources confirm that the Abgar who embraced the Christian faith was Abgar IX. Under him Christianity became the official religion of the kingdom. As for Addai, he was neither one of the seventy-two disciples as the legend asserts, nor was sent by Apostle Thomas, as Eusebius says,, but a missionary from Palestine who evangelized Mesopotamia about the middle of the second century, and became the first bishop of Edessa. He was succeeded by Aggai, then by Palout (Palut) who was ordained about 200 by Serapion of Antioch. Thence came to us in the second century the famous Peshitta, or Syriac translation of the Old Testament; also Tatian's Diatessaron, which was compiled about 172 and in common use until St. Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (412-435), forbade its use. Among the illustrious disciples of the School of Edessa Bardesanes (154 - 222), a schoolfellow of Abgar IX, deserves special mention for his role in creating Christian religious poetry, and whose teaching was continued by his son Harmonius and his disciples.
A Christian council was held at Edessa as early as 197. In 201 the city was devastated by a great flood, and the Christian church was destroyed. In 232 the relics of the Apostle St. Thomas were brought from India, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written. Under Roman domination many martyrs suffered at Edessa: Sts. Scharbîl and Barsamya, under Decius; Sts. Gûrja, Schâmôna, Habib, and others under Diocletian. In the meanwhile Christian priests from Edessa had evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, and established the first Churches in the kingdom of the Sassanids. Atillâtiâ, Bishop of Edessa, assisted at the Council of Nicaea (325). The Peregrinatio Silviae (or Etheriae) gives an account of the many sanctuaries at Edessa about 388.
When Nisibis was ceded to the Persians in 363, Ephrem the Syrian left his native town for Edessa, where he founded the celebrated School of the Persians. This school, largely attended by the Christian youth of Persia, and closely watched by St. Rabbula, the friend of St. Cyril of Alexandria, on account of its Nestorian tendencies, reached its highest development under Bishop Ibas, famous through the controversy of the Three Chapters, was temporarily closed in 457, and finally in 488, by command of Emperor Zeno and Bishop Cyrus, when the teachers and students of the School of Edessa repaired to Nisibis and became the founders and chief writers of the Nestorian Church in Persia. Monophysitism prospered at Edessa, even after the Arab conquest.
Under Byzantine rule, as metropolis of Osroene, it had eleven suffragan sees. Lequien mentions thirty-five Bishops of Edessa; yet his list is incomplete. The Eastern Orthodox episcopate seems to have disappeared after the eleventh century. Of its Jacobite bishops twenty-nine are mentioned by Lequien (II, 1429 sqq.), many others in the Revue de l'Orient chrétien (VI, 195), some in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft (1899), 261 sqq. Moreover, Nestorian bishops are said to have resided at Edessa as early as the sixth century.
Famous individuals connected with Edessa include: Jacob Baradaeus, the real chief of the Syrian Monophysites known after him as Jacobites; Stephen Bar Sudaïli, monk and pantheist, to whom was owing, in Palestine, the last crisis of Origenism in the sixth century; Jacob, Bishop of Edessa, a fertile writer (d. 708); Theophilus the Maronite, an astronomer, who translated into Syriac verse Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; the anonymous author of the Chronicon Edessenum (Chronicle of Edessa), compiled in 540; the writer of the story of "The Man of God", in the fifth century, which gave rise to the legend of St. Alexius. The oldest known dated Syriac manuscripts (AD 411 and 462), containing Greek patristic texts, come from Edessa.
 See also
Image of Edessa
List of bishops of Edessa
^ Bauer, Walter (1991) . "1 "Edessa"". Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~humm/Resources/Bauer/bauer01.htm.
^ von Harnack, Adolph (1905). The Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries. Williams & Norgate. pp. 293. "there is no doubt that even before 190 A.D. Christianity had spread vigorously within Edessa and its surroundings and that (shortly after 201 or even earlier?) the royal house joined the church"
^ Herbermann, Charles George (1913). The Catholic Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Press. pp. 282.
^ Cheetham, Samuel (1905). A History of the Christian Church During the First Six Centuries. Macmillan and Co. pp. 58.
^ von Gutschmid, A. (7 1887). "Untersuchungen über die Geschichte des Könligliches Osroëne". Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg (St. Petersburg, Russia) 35 (1).
^ Lockyer, Herbert (1988). All the Apostles of the Bible. Zondervan. pp. 260. ISBN 0310280117.
^ Historia Ecclesiastica, I, xiii.
^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Historia ecclesiastica, V, 23.
^ Chronicon Edessenum, ad. an. 201.
^ Ed. Gian-Francesco Gamurrini, Rome, 1887, 62 sqq.
^ Labourt, Le christianisme dans l'empire perse, Paris, 1904, 130-141.
^ Echos d'Orient, 1907, 145.
^ Oriens christianus II, 953 sqq.
 Further reading
Walter Bauer 1971. Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, 1934, (in English 1971): Chapter 1 "Edessa" (On-line text)
A. von Gutschmid, Untersuchungen über die Geschichte des Könligliches Osroëne, in series Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des Sciences de S. Petersbourg, series 7, vol. 35.1 (St. Petersburg, 1887)
J. B. Segal, Edessa: The Blessed City (Oxford and New York: University Press, 1970)
Schulz, Mathias, "Wegweiser ins Paradies," Der Spiegel 2372006, Pp. 158-170.
This entry uses text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, 1909.
 External links
Old and new Images from Edessa
Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Antioch by the Callirhoe, later Justinopolis (Edessa; Urfa) Turkey"
Andre Palmer, in e-journal Golden horn: Journal of Byzantium An essay on Egeria's escorted visit (April 384), and the bishop's tall tales
Chronicle of Edessa
Coordinates: 37°09′N 38°48′E / 37.15°N 38.8°E / 37.15; 38.8
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edessa,_Mesopotamia"
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Urfa şehir merkezi
Şehir nüfusu 483.750 (2008)
Posta kodu 63x xxx
İl plaka kodu 63
Coğrafi Bölge Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi
İl Şanlıurfa (il)
Belediye başkanı Ahmet Eşref Fakıbaba
Website Şanlıurfa Belediyesi
Bu sayfa Şanlıurfa ilinin şehir merkezini anlatmaktadır. Başlığın diğer anlamları için Şanlıurfa (anlam ayrım) sayfasına bakınız.
Şanlıurfa, Türkiye'nin Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesinde bir bulunan bir şehir.
M.Ö. 1. binyıldan beri sürekli olarak meskûn olan kent, yakın döneme kadar Urfa adıyla anılmış, ancak 1984 yılında TBMM kararıyla "Şanlı" ünvanını edinmiştir. Şanlıurfa ilinin merkezidir.
2 I. Dünya Savaşı ve sonrası
3 Tarihi ve turistik Yerler
3.2 Eski Şehir
3.4 Selahaddin Eyyubi Camii
3.6 Atatürk barajı
6 Sanal Gezinti - Panoramik Fotoğraflar
7 Dış bağlantılar
Urfa Kur'an, İncil ve Tonah (Eski ahit/ Tevrat)'ta geçen İbrahim peygamberin, doğum yeri olarak kabul edilir ve anısına Camii de bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca Peygamber Eyüp'ün de(İncil ve Eski ahitte Job) dogum yeri olarak kabul edilir.
Urfa kent merkezinin altında bugünkü Balıklıgöl'ün kuzeyinde yapılan bir keşif sonucu, Urfa kent merkezi tarihinin MÖ. 9500'e Çanak-Çömleksiz Neolitik Döneme kadar uzandığı görülmüştür.
11.500 yıllık tarihi süreç içerisinde Ebla, Akkad, Sümer, Babil, Hitit, Hurri-Mitanni, Arami, Asur, Pers, Makedonya, Roma, Bizans gibi uygarlıkların egemenlikleri altında yaşmıştır.
Urfa, 1094 yılında Selçuklu hakimiyetine girmiştir. 1098'de Haçlı Kontluğu, daha sonra Eyyubi, Memluk, Türkmen aşiretleri, Timur devleti, Akkoyunlular, Dulkadir beyliği, Safeviler ve en son da 1516'da Osmanlı sınırları içine katılmıştır. Önceleri Diyarbakır Eyalet sınırları içerisinde yer alan Urfa, 1876'da Halep vilayetine bağlanmış, 1916'da ise bağımsız bir sancak olmuştur.
I. Dünya Savaşı ve sonrası [değiştir]
1914'deki kayıtlara göre tahmini nüfus, 75.000olan şehirde, 45.000 Türk ve Kürt,25.000 Ermeni , 5.000 Hristiyan ve Yahudi yaşamaktaydı.
I. Dünya Savaşı'na kadar Osmanlıların elinde olan Urfa, 1919 yılında önce İngilizler, daha sonrada Fransızlar işgal edilen şehir, 11 Nisan 1920'de düşman işgalinden kurtarılmıştır. Cumhuriyet sonrasında 1924'de il olmuştur.
Şehrin nüfusu 2008 yılına göre 483.750'dir.1927'de 29.000 olan nüfusu 1990'da 276.528'e, 2000'de 385.588'e, 2007'de 472.238'e çıkmıştır.
Tarihi ve turistik Yerler [değiştir]
Eski Şehir [değiştir]
Kent merkezi Ortadoğu tarzında son derece canlı bir Çarşı etrafında gelişmiştir. Geleneksel mimari doku kısmen yozlaşmış olmakla birlikte, sokak aralarında birçok yerde çarpıcı güzelliğe sahip eski yapılara rastlanır. En güzel eski evlerden biri Şurkav (Şanlı Urfa Kültür ve Araştırma Vakfı) tarafından restore edilen Şurkav Kültür Evi'dir.
1175 tarihinde Musul hükümdarı Nureddin Zengi tarafından kiliseden çevirilmiştir. Daha önce çan kulesi olan minaresi sekizgendir. Aslen havra olarak inşa edilmiştir.
Selahaddin Eyyubi Camii [değiştir]
Selahaddin Eyyubi Camii içinden bir görüntü
M.Ö. 2000 yılında Ur şehrinin bir ticari kolu olarak kurulduğuna inanılan Harran'ın Sümerce veya Akatça kervan veya geçit yeri anlamına gelen "Harran-U” kelimesinden türediği düşünülmektedir. Moğol İstilasında Yıkılan Harran Üniversitesinin Harabesi ile tarihi Harran evleri görülebilir.
Atatürk barajı [değiştir]
Lahmacun (kıymalı ekmek olarak da bilinir)
ciğer kebabı (özellikle sabah kahvaltisinda)
aya köftesi (el ayasında yapılır)
sade kebap (batıda "Urfa Kebabı" olarak bilinir)
bostana (eksili salata)
acik ekmek (lavac ekmek olarak bildigimiz)
mırra(acı kahve olarak da bilinir)
^ İngilizce Wikipedia Urfa maddesi
^ İngilizce Wikipedia Urfa maddesi
Sanal Gezinti - Panoramik Fotoğraflar [değiştir]
360 Derece Panoramik Fotoğraflar Balıklı Göl Sanal Turu, 360TR.COM, 2008
Dış bağlantılar [değiştir]
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