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Nasureddin Tusi, 1201 ile 1274 yıllarında yaşamış islam filozofu. Sözkonusu dönem, Moğol istilası sebebiyle Bağdad'da, bir yandan karanlık bir dönem bir yandan da önemli düşünce okullarının kurulduğu ve islam bilim kurumlarının açıldığı bir dönem oldu. Nasîrüddin Tûsî'de bu dönemde yetişmiş Şiî dünyasının tanınmış bir bilgesi olmuştur.
Nasîrüddin Tûsî, babasının ve dayısının etkisiyle erken yaşlardan itibaren kelâm, felsefe ve matematik ile ilgilenmeye başladı. Felsefi gelişmesinin belirli bir evresinde İbn-i Sina'nın İşârât'ını okudu ve uzun yıllar bu metinle uğraştı. Bu uğraşmaların ardından en önemli eserlerinden biri sayılan Şerh-i İşârât´ı kaleme aldı.
Kemalûddin Hâsip'ten matemetiği ve Burhanüddin Hamedanî'den hadisleri öğrendi. Pek çok bilgi dalıyla ilgilendi ve derinleşmeye çalıştı; tanınmış bilginler yetiştirdi (Allâme Hillî, Kutbüddin Şirvanî gibi).İsmaili mezhebinden ve edebiyat, tasavvuf ve felsefe ilgilisi Nasîrüddin Ebu'l-Feth b.Mansûr'nin meclisinde yer aldı. Abbasi halifesi El-Mûtasım'ı öven bir kaside yazdıktan sonra araları açıldı ve sürgüne gönderildi.
Hassan Sabah'ın yedinci halefi Khudavend Alaüddin aracılığıyla Alamut kalesinde saklandı. Daha sonra, 1247'ye kadar, yarı tutuklu olarak Meymûn Daye kalesinde tutuldu. Moğolların kaleleri ele geçirmesiyle serbest kaldı. Moğol hükümdarı Hülâgu'nun müşaviri olarak görev aldı ve bütün bilimsel ve felsefi çalışmalarında ondan destek aldı. Ünlü Marâgâ Rasathanesini bu sırada kurdu ve bu kurum en büyük islam bilim kurumlarından biri olarak yer aldı. Rasathanenin yanında büyük bir kütüphane kurulması da gerçekleştirildi, burada dört yüz bin kitabın toplandığı sanılmaktadır. Hûlagü han bir yandan Bağdadı yakıp yıkan bir yandan da orada yeniden bilim kurumlarının kurulmasını destekleyen kişi oldu. Daha sonraki hükümdar Abaka Han tarafından da destek gördü ve yaşlılığında bu destek sayesinde önemli eserlerini üretti.
Nasîrüddin Tûsî, islam felsefesinde yeni bir felsefe ekolü ortaya koymamıştır, ancak yine de felsefi çalışmaları derinlik ve kapsamıyla etkili olmuş bir bilge olarak yer almıştır. Daha çok meşşai filozoflarının yolundan gitmiş olduğu söylenebilir, onların felsefi tezlerini Şiiliğin prensiplerine uyarlamaya çalıştı. İslam dünyasında ilk defa bir sistematik etik kitabını yazan kişi oldu. Sisteminde Aristoteles'in ahlak ilkeleriyle Gazâli'nin mistik ve tasavufi ahlak düşünceleriyle bir arada değerlendirmeye çalıştı. Bir tür sentez arayışında oldu. Bu ahlak felsefesinin bir bölümünü de eğitim konusundaki düşünceleri oluşturmaktadır. Ona göre çocuğun doğumundan itibaren ona uygun bir ad verilmeli (çünkü adlar kader üzerinde etki yapar), iyi bir sütanneye sahip olmalı ve yetişme döneminde çocuk kötü huy edineceği ortamlardan korunmalıdır. Bu süreçte ona aklını kullanmasını ve akıl yoluyla elde edilen erdemleri sevmesini öğretmek gerekir. Arzularına hakim olmanın ve kendini tutmanın bir erdem olarak öğretilmesi gerekir. Bundan sonra ise çocuk hangi sanata ya da ilgiye yetenekli ise ona yönlendirilmeli ve özendirilmelidir.
- Şerh'i İşârat (temel felsefe kitabı, 20 yılda hazırlanmış)
- Zic-i İlhânî (astronomi hakkında)
- Tecrid-ül-akâid (kelam kitabı)
- Tezker-i hayat
- Tahrir-i Öklides
- Esas-ül-iktibas (Mantık kitabı)
- Ahlak-ı Nâsırî
- El-Mesail El-Hayriyat
- Bahnâme (Tıp bilimi kitabı
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Persian Muslim scholar|
Commemorated on an Iranian stamp upon the 700th anniversary of his death.
|Name:||Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī|
|Birth:||16 February, 1201 (11 Jamadi al-Ula, 597)|
|Death:||25th June, 1274 (18 Dhu'l-Hijjah 672)|
|Maddhab:||Twelver Shī‘ah school tradition=Avicennism|
|Main interests:||Islamic Theology, Islamic Philosophy,Astronomy, Mathematics, Chemistry,Biology and Medicine, Physics, Science|
|Notable ideas:||Conservation of mass, Evolution,Spherical trigonometry, Tusi-couple|
|Works:||Rawḍa-yi Taslīm, Tajrid al-'Aqaid,|
Akhlaq-i-Nasri, Zij-i ilkhani,
Al-Tadhkirah fi'ilm al-hay'ah
|Influences:||Avicenna, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi,Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi|
|Influenced:||ibn Khaldun, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Ibn al-Shatir, Copernicus|
Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī (Persian: محمد بن محمد بن الحسن الطوسی) (born February 1201 in Ṭūs, Khorasan – 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah, Baghdad), better known as Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (or Tusi in the West), was a Persian of the Ismailiand subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief. He was a polymath and prolific writer: an astronomer, biologist, chemist,mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed.
Nasir al-Din Tusi was born in Tus east of Iran in the year 1201 and began his studies at an early age. In Tus he studied the Qur'an,Hadith, Shi'a jurisprudence, logic, philosophy, mathematics, medicine and astronomy.
He was apparently born into an Ismaili Shī‘ah family and lost his father at a young age. Fulfilling the wish of his father, the young Muhammad took learning and scholarship very seriously and travelled far and wide to attend the lectures of renowned scholars and acquire the knowledge which guides people to the happiness of the next world. At a young age he moved to Nishapur to study philosophy under Farid al-Din Damad and mathematics under Muhammad Hasib. He met also Farid al-Din al-'Attar, the legendary Sufi master who was later killed in the hand of Mongol invaders and attended the lectures of Qutb al-Din al-Misri.
In Mawsil he studied mathematics and astronomy with Kamal al-Din Yunus (d. 639/1242). Later on he corresponded with al-Qaysari, the son-in-law of Ibn al-‘Arabi, and it seems that mysticism, as propagated by Sufi masters of his time, was not appealing to his mind and once the occasion was suitable, he composed his own manual of philosophical Sufism in the form of a small booklet entitled Awsaf al-Ashraf The Attributes of the Illustrious".
As the armies of Genghis Khan swept his homeland, he fled to join the Ismailis and made his most important contributions in science during this time when he was moving from one stronghold to another. He finally joined Hulagu Khan's ranks, after the invasion of theAlamut castle by the Mongol forces.
- Tajrid-al-'Aqaid – A major work on al-Kalam (Islamic scholastic philosophy).
- Al-Tadhkirah fi'ilm al-hay'ah – A memoir on the science of astronomy. Many commentaries were written about this work called Sharh al-Tadhkirah (A Commentary on al-Tadhkirah) - Commentaries were written by Abd al-Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Birjandi and by Nazzam Nishapuri.
- Akhlaq-i-Nasri – A work on ethics.
- al-Risalah al-Asturlabiyah – A Treatise on astrolabe.
- Zij-i ilkhani (Ilkhanic Tables) – A major astronomical treatise, completed in 1272.
- sharh al-isharat (Commentary on Avicenna's Isharat)
- Awsaf al-Ashraf a short mystical-ethical work in Persian
During his stay in Nishapur, Tusi established a reputation as an exceptional scholar. "Al-Tusi’s prose writing, which number over 150 works, represent on of the largest collections by a single Islamic author. Writing in both Arabic and Persian, Nasir al-Din Tusi dealt with both religious (“Islamic”) topics and non-religious or secular subjects (the ancient sciences).".. His works include the definitive Arabic versions of the works of Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Autolycus, and Theodosius of Bithynia..
Tusi convinced Hulegu Khan to construct an observatory for establishing accurate astronomical tables for better astrological predictions. Beginning in 1259, the Rasad Khaneh observatory was constructed in Azarbaijan, west of Maragheh, the capital of the Ilkhanate Empire.
Based on the observations in this for the time being most advanced observatory, Tusi made very accurate tables of planetary movements as depicted in his book Zij-i ilkhani (Ilkhanic Tables). This book contains astronomical tables for calculating the positions of the planets and the names of the stars. His model for the planetary system is believed to be the most advanced of his time, and was used extensively until the development of the heliocentric model in the time of Nicolaus Copernicus. Between Ptolemy and Copernicus, he is considered by many to be one of the most eminent astronomers of his time, and his work and theory in astronomy can also be compared to that of the Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031-1095 AD).
For his planetary models, he invented a geometrical technique called a Tusi-couple, which generates linear motion from the sum of two circular motions. He used this technique to replace Ptolemy's problematic equant, and it was later employed in Ibn al-Shatir's geocentric model and Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric Copernican model. He also calculated the value for the annual precession of the equinoxes and contributed to the construction and usage of some astronomical instruments including the astrolabe.
Tusi was also the first to present empirical observational evidence of the Earth's rotation, using the location of comets relevant to the Earth as evidence, which Ali al-Qushji elaborated on with further empirical observations. The arguments of Tusi were similar to the arguments later used by Copernicus in 1543 to explain the Earth's rotation.
Tusi wrote extensively on biology and is one of the early pioneers of biological evolution in scientific thought. He begins his theory of evolution with the universe once consisting of equal and similar elements, which themselves consist of elementary particles. According to Tusi, internal contradictions began appearing, and as a result, some substances began developing faster and differently from other substances. He then explains how the elements evolved into minerals, then plants, then animals, and then humans. Tusi then goes on to explain how hereditaryvariability was an important factor for biological evolution of living things:
"The organisms that can gain the new features faster are more variable. As a result, they gain advantages over other creatures. [...] The bodies are changing as a result of the internal and external interactions."
"Look at the world of animals and birds. They have all that is necessary for defense, protection and daily life, including strengths, courage and appropriate tools [organs] [...] Some of these organs are real weapons, [...] For example, horns-spear, teeth and claws-knife and needle, feet and hoofs-cudgel. The thorns and needles of some animals are similar to arrows. [...] Animals that have no other means of defense (as the gazelle and fox) protect themselves with the help of flight and cunning. [...] Some of them, for example, bees, ants and some bird species, have united in communities in order to protect themselves and help each other."
"Animals are higher than plants, because they are able to move consciously, go after food, find and eat useful things. [...] There are many differences between the animal and plant species, [...] First of all, the animal kingdom is more complicated. Besides, reason is the most beneficial feature of animals. Owing to reason, they can learn new things and adopt new, non-inherent abilities. For example, the trained horse or hunting falcon...is at a higher point of development in the animal world. The first steps of human perfection begin from here."
Tusi then explains how humans evolved from advanced animals:
"Such humans [probably anthropoid apes] live in the Western Sudan and other distant corners of the world. They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior. [...] The human has features that distinguish him from other creatures, but he has other features that unite him with the animal world, vegetable kingdom or even with the inanimate bodies. [...] Before [the creation of humans], all differences between organisms were of the natural origin. The next step will be associated with spiritual perfection, will, observation and knowledge. [...] All these facts prove that the human being is placed on the middle step of the evolutionary stairway. According to his inherent nature, the human is related to the lower beings, and only with the help of his will can he reach the higher development level."
Chemistry and Physics
"A body of matter cannot disappear completely. It only changes its form, condition, composition, color and other properties and turns into a different complex or elementary matter."
"What spurred him to this was that in the assertoric syllogistic Aristotle and others sometimes used contradictories of absolute propositions on the assumption that they are absolute; and that was why so many decided that absolutes did contradict absolutes. When Avicenna had shown this to be wrong, he wanted to give a way of construing those examples from Aristotle."
Tusi was perhaps the first to treat trigonometry as a separate mathematical discipline, distinct from astronomy, and in his Treatise on the Quadrilateral, he gave the first extensive exposition of spherical trigonometry, which he developed into its present form, as he was the first to list the six distinct cases of a right triangle in spherical trigonometry.
This followed earlier work by Greek mathematicians such as Menelaus of Alexandria, who wrote a book on spherical trigonometry called Sphaerica, and the earlier Muslim mathematiciansAbū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī and Al-Jayyani.
In 1265, Tusi wrote a manuscript regarding the calculation for nth roots of an integer. Moreover, he revealed the coefficients of the expansion of a binomial to any power giving the binomial formula and the Pascal triangle relations between binomial coefficients. He also wrote a famous work on theory of colour, based on mixtures of black and white, and included sections on jewels and perfumes.
Influence and legacy
A 60-km diameter lunar crater located on the southern hemisphere of the moon is named after him as "Nasireddin". A minor planet 10269 Tusi discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1979 is named after him. The K. N. Toosi University of Technology in Iran and Observatory of Shamakhy in the Republic of Azerbaijan are also named after him.
- Persian science
- Islamic Golden Age
- Islamic science
- Islamic scholars
- List of Muslim scholars
- List of Shi'a Muslims
- List of Iranian scientists
- Shen Kuo
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- ^ Arthur Goldschmidt, Lawrence Davidson. "A Concise History of the Middle East", Westview Press, 2005. Eighth edition, pg 136
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- ^ Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad; Badakchani, S. J. (2005), Paradise of Submission: A Medieval Treatise on Ismaili Thought, Ismaili Texts and Translations, 5, London: I.B. Tauris in association with Institute of Ismaili Studies, pp. 2–3, ISBN 1860644368
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- Encyclopedia Iranica, "AḴLĀQ-E NĀṢERĪ", G.M. Wickens 
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "AWṢĀF AL-AŠRĀF", G.M. Wickens 
- Biography by Islamic Insights
- Biography by Islamic Philosophy Online
- Biography by The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Kerry Magruder, History of Science Online: Islamic and Early Medieval Science, University of Oklahoma
- Islam Online.
- The Rekhaganita. An 18th century Sanskrit translation of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's recension of Euclid's Elements.